Acknowledgements and Bibliography


With many thanks for contributing information to Ben Mussanzi wa Mussangu, Carol Peltier, Charles Dacres, Corine Campbell, Dr. John Samuel, George Bailey, Gordon McLennon, Heather Esiri, Jerry Crawford, Peter Tate, Nigel Guy and Trish Cooke.

With grateful thanks to Josie Stevens, Heritage Learning Manager, Hackney Museums for the idea and advice, to Bob Naylor for research on the Jubilee Fisk Singers, to Grace Flerin for her writing and research, Tabatha Maud for research on Henry Box Brown and John Sella Martin, Bradford Museums and Libraries staff, John Ashton of the Bradford Museum Photo Archive and finally David Olusuga for all his inspirational work in this area.


Bourne, S. (2014) Black Poppies Britain’s Black Community and the Great War, the History Press.

Brown, H.B. (2008) Narrative of Henry Box Brown, written by himself. Ernest, J. (editor). Narrative of the life of Henry Box Brown, written by himself. University of North Carolina Press. 41-106.

Equiano, O. (1789) The interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano or Gustav Vassa, the African written by Himself. Werner Sollers (New York) 2001.

Haynes, D.M.& Gezina GH (2004), Black Victorians , Black Victoriana.

Olusoga,, D. (2016)  Black and British: A Forgotten History, Pan Macmillan

Olusoga, D. 2020  Black and British A Short Essential History, Macmillan’s Children’s Books


The Oral History Recordings of the Bradford Heritage Recording Unit, Bradford Local Studies Library,C.0085, C.0084, C0044, C.0039, C0011